Miss Waldron's Red Colobus (Piliocolobus waldroni)
Once found throughout southeastern Cote d’Ivoire and southwestern Ghana, extensive hunting and habitat loss have resulted in steep declines in its population. They have not been observed in the wild since 1978, despite extensive surveys. Experts believe that it may be extinct, but rumors of their existence persist from the deep interior of a single, remote, almost impenenetrable swamp forest.
Niger Delta Red Colobus (Piliocolobus epieni)
The most recently discovered red colobus species is already one of the most endangered. First described in the 1990’s, the Niger Delta Red Colobus is found only in Nigeria, restricted to the swamp forests of the Niger Delta in an area of approximately 78 sq. km. Its habitat has been severely degraded by logging, and hunting has increased due to the influx of oil workers to the region. With only about 200 individuals remaining, it is thought that it may go extinct within the next 5 years without effective conservation actions.
Tana River Red Colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus)
Found only in small forest fragments along a 60-km stretch of river, in a total area of less than 13 s.q km. Only around 1,000 individuals remain, but it is in continual decline due to rapid loss and fragmentation of its habitat. The endangered Tana River Mangabey is also endemic and restricted to the same forest as the Tana River Red Colobus.
Preuss's Red Colobus (Piliocolobus preussi)
Restricted mostly to two separate forests in western Cameroon, this species requires urgent support. Surrounded by some of the densest human populations in Africa, it is in sharp decline due to intense, commercialized bushmeat hunting and deforestation caused by expansion of small and large-scale agriculture and infrastructure projects.
Pennant's Red Colobus (Piliocolobus pennantii)
Endemic to the small island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea, it was believed to have once been found throughout all of Bioko’s lowland forests. Heavy hunting pressure and increasing infrastructure development, however, has reduced its range to only the most remote, mountainous corner of the island, in an area of about 150 sq. km. Fewer than an estimated 1,200 individuals remain, a decline of more than 80% over the last 30 years due primarily to the proliferation of the commercial bushmeat trade. The critically
endangered Bioko black colobus and endangered Bioko drill are also endemic, along with six other endangered primate taxa, and found in the same forest as the Pennant’s red colobus. As such, this species is a notable flagship for the primate fauna of Bioko Island.